HIPER-LASE - Towards Hetero-Integration of Perovskite Lasers into Silicon Photonics
On-chip lasers remain a highly sought but elusive component for integrated photonic circuits and systems for high-speed data communication as well as numerous gas-, bio- and chemical sensing applications. Conventional semiconductor lasers can provide this functionality and performance but cannot be directly manufactured on a silicon or silicon nitride photonic platform due to severe process incompatibility. This project aims to investigate the potential of metal-halide perovskite semiconductors for electrically pumped integrated lasers. This overarching objective is triggered by the remarkable optical gain, the (relatively) high charge carrier mobility and the tunability of the direct band gap of metal-halide perovskites, which in principle makes them an excellent choice for low-cost integrated lasers on silicon nitride photonics. Although optically pumped perovskite on-chip lasers have already been demonstrated, achieving CW operation and electrically pumped lasing at room temperature (RT) remains an immense challenge. In the previous work perovskite micro-disc lasers monolithically integrated into silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits (PICs) using top down process are presented . In order to achieve electrically pumped lasers, such top down process should be utilized to pattern the perovskite as the gain media into the silicon nitride PICs.
The partners will collaborate to identify to what extent the morphological, optical, electrical and thermal material properties of perovskites can be optimized towards electrically pumped lasing. At the end of the project these results will be combined to assess whether such electrically pumped perovskite lasers are feasible and what is needed to realize them. We also aim to unravel fundamental limits that might impede electrical operation. The key research activities are:
- Understanding the charge carrier dynamics in the high excitation regime and how they are modified by perovskite processing
- Minimizing the optical loss in the perovskite
- CW optically pumped lasing at room temperature
- Engineering inorganic charge transport layers to selectively inject electrons or holes
- Current research shows the intrinsic heat conductivity of perovskites to be insufficient for electrically pumped lasing, even for single crystals. Hence an external heat sink formed from a material compatible with electrically pumped lasing is needed. The application and suitability of hBN for this task will be researched.
Our project’s goal is to lay the groundwork for the development of the perovskite laser diode. In this perspective we will develop device architectures fitting the requirements identified via the study of material properties. The design will have to guarantee that the injected carriers can be effectively accumulated in the perovskite emitter overlapping with the optical mode and that the emitter will be separated from any lossy electrode materials by conductive and optically transparent cladding layers. In III-V laser diodes this is achieved via the use of heterostructures, a concept which cannot be readily applied to perovskites, e.g. due to halide migration. Hence, we will focus on the use of TCOs (transparent conductive oxides), 2D materials and special waveguide designs to find the optimal device architecture.
HIPER-LASE is funded by the deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
Chair of Electronic Devices, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Deutschland
AMO GmbH, Aachen, Deutschland
Institute of High Frequency and Quantum Electronics, Universität Siegen, Siegen, Deutschland
 P. J. Cegielski et al., “Monolithically Integrated Perovskite Semiconductor Lasers on Silicon Photonic Chips by Scalable Top-Down Fabrication,” Nano letters, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 6915–6923, 2018, doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b02811.